» Likhaan Development Programs
» Likhaan Development Projects
» Likhaan Educational Programs & Training Courses

Likhaan Programs and Projects

THE programs and projects of The Likhaan Group revolve around five overlapping concerns as follows:

1. Developing human resources: The projects of Likhaan usually include mechanisms for expanding not only the capacities of its project teams, but most especially in developing the creative skills and technical capabilities of its participants, community partners and project beneficiaries through education, training, research and development activities using the participatory process. (See training & education programs and projects.)

2. Developing organizations and strengthening institutions: The Institute always assumes that its involvement in institution-building and community development projects is time-bounded. It therefore designs and implements programs and projects on the basis of transferring knowledge, information and experiences to project partners and participants so that they will be able to takeover the organization and management of their own developmental activities.

3. Technological transformation and community innovations: Likhaan is concerned with building up a more technologically efficient response of the people to their environment and resources. It therefore promotes technology transformation, community innovations and social entrepreneurship.

4. Promoting sustainable development and equitable distribution of wealth: To ensure sustained and equitable development, Likhaan programs and projects are designed to satisfy economic, social, cultural, environmental and technological criteria. In urban and rural communities, Likhaan promotes projects associated or related to sustainable agriculture, harmonious urban-rural industrialization, and equitable sharing of social and economic gains.

5. Encouraging integrated area development planning and research: To secure systematic integration of development activities in its programs and projects, Likhaan encourages its partners, participants and beneficiaries to look at development planning and research as an integral activity in project development and implementation towards social transformation. (Policy research, strategic studies, development planning, and social & economic research, agriculture and community development, and special projects).

» Likhaan programs and projects could combine one, two or more development concerns in a particular program or project.

Likhaan Development Programs

1. Community Innovation Models� (C�I�M) Program � a program designed to create community development models in selected communities in five agro-ecological resource zones of the Philippines: small islands, coastal, lowland, upland and highland areas with the following proposed project sites which have been visited/studied or presently undergoing desk studies, planning and research:

a. SmallIsland Communities. The Philippines is an archipelago of more than 7,000 small islands. Approximately 85% of the 72 million Filipinos live in the 10 principal islands. However, some nine (9) million fisherfolk-farmers inhabit approximately 2000 small islands and islets. Most of these people live in dire pover�ty. C�I�M� for small islands is a first step towards helping the people in small island communities to survive, escape from poverty and then, catch up with the development in larger islands.
The resource base of small islands is fragile. Its ecosystem, generally classified as coastal marine environment, is vulnerable to abuse and misuse. In fact, the coastal resource base is fast becoming an endangered zone. Its fishery areas are over exploited. The economic base of small islands is principally fishing and small-scale farming. At present, fishers live as "sharecrop�per" or hired labor to owners of fishing equipment. Hence, their poverty is patent � this is aggravated by excessive exploitation by middlemen and retail traders.

b. Coastal Communities. The coastal areas of the country protect the security of livelihood for nearly 95% of the Philippine popula�tion. The coastal resources of the country are frag�ile. Its complex ecosystem (coral reefs, estuaries, mangroves and inshore open waters) are under threat, some areas are already depleted or destroyed.
C�I�M� intends to help the people in coastal areas in understanding and shaping the ecological, socio-economic and political factors towards sustainable and equitable development through the promotion of social productivity and community innovations.
The Program seeks to develop social inventions that will uplift the quality of life of the people living in coastal ecosystems. Green technologies will be de�veloped to protect the coastal areas and its human settlements.

c. Lowland Communities. The lowland areas are regarded as the prime agricultur�al lands of the country. Unfortunately, after several hundred years of food production activities in the lowlands, signs of degradation and decreasing productivity have been observed in the last 10 years. There are no more dalag (mudfish), hito (catfish) and edible frogs in rice paddies; lowland vegetable farms produce low yields due to overused of chemical ferti�lizers; and many other negative experiences encountered by lowland farmers.
The poverty in the lowlands is rapidly increasing. The degradation of farm areas is resulting in very low harvest. The people in lowland communities need new ways of coping with these problems particularly in building up a more technologically efficient response to their environment with the available or accessible community resources. C�I�M� hopes to provide innovative solutions to problems in this particular agro-ecological resource zone.

d. Upland Communities. The Philippine upland is a very critical ecological zone. It links the highlands and the lowlands. Thou�sands of hectares in the upland areas have now become "deserts," causing loss of vegetation due to logging and substantial migration of people from the lowlands that clear the foothills and rolling areas for food production and gathering of fuel-woods.
Siltations of lowland farms are caused by the desertifi�cation of the uplands and highlands. C�I�M�s initiative will be to provide community resource management and concerted efforts to regenerate degraded land resources, water management, and upgrade hill-farming systems.
C�I�M� projects in the uplands hope to provide a model for sustainable development and conservation of remain�ing resources for future generations.

e. Highland Communities. The fragile highlands are being degraded by encroaching population. People from the uplands and lowlands have migrated to the mountains due to poverty.
By living in the highlands, these people hope to alleviate their poverty, but the reverse is happening. The highlands are becoming denuded. The forestlands are now �har�vested� in order to bring more land under cultivation. If this continues, the highlands would become "green deserts" with negligible economic values.
Highlands, particularly the moist forests, are key areas for genetic diversity. C�I�M� hopes to find solutions to environmental degradation of the remaining rainforests. Even as people are encouraged to put up, instead, �harvestable forest� and environmentally and technologically appropriate mountain agriculture in the buffer zones or production forests.
C�I�M� Program will also develop �corporate community� for social transformation and people empowerment, and �agribusiness, agro-industrial and craft villages� to start-up rural industrialization.

f. Urban Communities. The urban communities are saddled with complex socio-economic and human settlement problems such as increasing population, unemployment, multiplying incident of crimes, poor delivery of social services, environmental pollution, among many others.
The C�I�M� Program hopes to help in alleviating some of these urban problems through urban renewal and community development activities.

Project sites. The prospective project sites of the C�I�M� Program are as follows:

1. Small island community: Calamianes Group of Islands [Culion, Busuanga and Coron (a.k.a. Kalis)], Province of Palawan.
2. Coastal community: Desk study and socio-economic research on the proposed sites are on-going.
3. Lowland community: Desk study and socio-economic research on the proposed sites are on-going.
4. Upland community: Mount Banahaw and Mount San Cristobal Gardens, upland barangays of Nagcarlan, Laguna with the upland areas of Rizal, Liliw and Majayjay as expansion areas.
5. Highland community: MountDataGardens, BarangayMt. Data, Municipality of Bauko, MountainProvince; and selected communities in BenguetProvince.
6. Urban community: Selected areas in Metro-Manila, Metro-Cebu and Metro-Davao.
7. Barangay C�I�M�: Barangays (villages) Lasaan, Napapatid and San Francisco in Nagcarlan, Laguna.
8. Municipal C�I�M�: Nagcarlan, Laguna.
9. District C�I�M�: To be identified.
10. City C�I�M�: To be identified.
11. Provincial C�I�M�: To be identified.

The Development Management System (D�M�S)� is applied to all C�I�M� projects.
* Funds for the implementation of C�I�M� development projects for the above-mentioned project sites are to be negotiated with funding institutions and supporting agencies.

2. Sambayanihan� (Kooperatibang-Korporasyong Bayanihan ng Sambayanan)� Program � a new concept of �corporate community� that provides new approach to community development and social transformation. This program hopes to develop rural communities into �corporate bodies� wherein the people in the communities shall function as a virtual �corporation,� managing their resources collec�tively and earning higher income individually.

3. Sakahang Bayan� Program � a start-up corporate community-building project in agricultural and fishing communities. This is a productivity-cum-extension service program designed to improve the livelihood of the rural people, more particularly farmers and fisherfolks. The program is a development-oriented, corporate-cooperative farming and/or fishing system at the level of rural corporations or cooperatives consisting of the following interactive components:
1) A new method and technique of organic farming and/or sustainable fish production
2) A corporate-cooperative-compact farm and/or fishery association
3) A mutually beneficial sharing scheme
4) Diversified community-based economic development planning
5) Integrated community development and resource management program
The project will institute the Sakahang Bayan� Association or Cooperative as an economic organization formed on a voluntary and mutually beneficial basis by farmers and fisherfolks with the guidance and help of a professional farm/fishery management and community development group in cooperation with government and/or private institutions. Its members are organized for corporate-cooperative work and the fruits of their labor are distributed according to the principle of �equitable sharing.�
The project will introduce a new concept of corporate community, currently under study to provide new approach to social transformation. This project hopes to develop barangay communities into �corporate bodies� wherein the people in the barangay shall function as a virtual �corporation,� managing their resources collec�tively and earning higher income individually.

4. Project: �Micropolis�* Program, a Barangay Development and Urban Renewal Program� The Project is designed to strengthen barangay planning and development management, develop the capacity of LGUs, promote sustainable urban development, improve urban life and service delivery, reduce urban poverty, and increase participation of civil society and private sector in urban reconstruction and social transformation. The project includes: a) Community training, social research, and development mapping & analysis; b) Participatory development planning and urban renewal using a generalized development management system [D�M�S]; c) Institution of the barangay fiscal administration and community financial management system [F�M�S]; and d) Introduction of the community environmental management system [E�M�S]. The project intends to prepare a comprehensive urban redevelopment plan, develop and implement an integrated, broad-based urban improvement programs/projects to make the barangays socially-environmentally livable, economically competitive and financially bankable communities under effective-efficient governance. [The E�M�S component of the project was implemented in 2003 with funding from SIDA of Sweden, focus on solid waste management.]

*Note: �MICROPOLIS� literally means small city from Gr. micros, small + polis, city. It is a term coined in by R.N.M. Aboganda, Likhaan chair/president. Micropolis is a human settlement strategy towards integrated development of the barangays with existing urban pattern. It seeks the organized redevelopment of cities-within-cities or the small urban areas like puroks (neighborhoods), barangays or cluster of barangays of the me�tropolis, small cities and municipal poblacion in the Philippines, with considerable attention given to slums and squatter areas.

5. Project: �Macropolis�** Program Like Project:Micropolis, the project is designed to strengthen city/municipal planning and development management, develop the capacity of LGUs. It promotes sustainable urban development, improves urban life and service delivery, reduces urban poverty, and increases participation of civil society and private sector in urban reconstruction and social transformation. The project includes: a) Institutional training, social/community research, and development mapping & analysis; b) Participatory development planning and urban renewal using a generalized development management system [D�M�S]; c) Institution of the city/municipal fiscal administration and community financial management system [F�M�S]; and d) Introduction of the city/municipal environmental management system [E�M�S]. The project intends to prepare a comprehensive urban redevelopment plan, develop and implement an integrated, broad-based urban improvement programs/projects to make the city/municipality socially-environmentally livable, economically competitive and financially bankable communities under effective-efficient governance.

�**Note: �MACROPOLIS� literally means enlarged city (from Gr. makros, long, enlarge + polis, city) as differentiated from �megalopolis� (Gk. mega, great + polis, city) defined as vast, continuously urban area, covering any number of cities. J. Gottman, who introduced the term �megalopolis,� defined it as an urban area containing over 35 million people. Macropolis is a term coined in 1996 by Nelson Aboganda, TLG chairman/president. Macropolis is the larger version of �Micropolis� proposed earlier by Likhaan. Macropolis, like the micropolis approach to urban development, is a human settlement strategy towards the development of vast urban areas taken from the perspective of national and regional development.

Likhaan Development Projects

1. Development Management System: D�M�S ProjectThis project seeks ways to provide a simple framework for understanding development planning, human settlement renewal, fiscal administration, and environmental management by virtue of a whole set of practical theories, methodologies, systems, tools and techniques, and project implementation activities.
Short, but intensive, theoretical training courses under this project will introduce the concept of planned barangay or municipality and the operating processes of human settlement development using the Community D�M�S (Development Management System) which consists of three (3) component systems as follows: community information and planning system (CIPS), community innovation and development system (CIDS) and project development and implementation system (PDIS) together with F�M�S (Fiscal Administration and Financial Management System) and E�M�S (Environmental Management System).

2. Small Islands Development Management Project The project, D�M�S-oriented project, is a first step towards helping the people in small island communities to survive... escape from poverty... and� then, catch up with development in larger islands. It seeks to bring small islands into the mainstream of the country�s economic recovery and development efforts, and to build and develop self-reliant, self-propelling and self-sustaining island communities through an ecologically sustainable agriculture and fishery systems.

3. Capacity-Building in Good Urban Governance and Community-Driven City Development � This project addresses three major concerns of urban governance, local economic development and city development planning as staging points for poverty reduction, people empowerment and urban development. The goal is to improve urban governance and promote community economic development through combined city government-assistance and community-driven and self-help approach towards transforming the city and its barangays into sustainable cities. The overall strategy is to rebuild urban barangays in key cities and major urban centers of Metro Manila into socially-environmentally livable, economically competitive and financially bankable communities under an efficient-effective local governance using community economic development as a major entry point for poverty reduction.

4. Barangay Development and Community Reconstruction Project � This project seeks to improve the capability of barangay government and barangay-based NGOs as well as the civil society organizations in any city, municipality or barangay by making them both key partners and participants in the implementation of the program of activities. The project aims to upgrade the know-how, skills and methodical disciplines of local LGUs and NGOs in the operation of rural development management system, particularly the use of various tools and techniques in community renewal and develop�ment, fund generation and financial management, and environmental management.

5. Agro-Industrial Park and Trade CenterThe project aims to promote employment (livelihood) through the training of skilled manpower by way of technology demonstration and technical agro-industrial education and specialized, job-oriented entrepreneurial training. It intends to incubate and nurture new agro-industrial enterprises and promote the technological advancement of existing labor-intensive, small and medium agro-industries and agro-forestry enterprises. It will develop light agro-industries, community- and home-based enterprises, and trading networks linking big indus�tries with small enterprises and barangay communities.

6. Agro-Industrial VillageA model of an agribusiness or agro-industrial village. In this model craft village, the farmers and/or fishers shall be developed and transformed into agri-business entrepreneurs. The village shall then be able to process agri�cultural produce for higher value-added products.

7. Pandayan Project � a people�s workshop.

Introductory note. The rootword �panday� is generically used in various Philippine dialects to mean blacksmith and/or carpenter. Panday in Tagalog means blacksmith; in Hiligaynon, anluwagi (carpenter). and in other Visayan dialects, panday means carpenter.
The word pandayan, in a broader context, is often taken to mean sanayan ng isipan, talino at kakayahan. In rural areas, the blacksmith shop is an enterprise in itself. The pandayan also serves many other purposes specially as a farmer�s workshop for the development or fabrication of farm tools and implements.
Thus, the PANDAYAN PROJECT is conceived as a people�s workshop for entrepreneurial education and skills development, rural industry and enterprise development, and community technology research and development (R&D). R&D is taken to mean inventory, documentation, inventive research, technology development and actual transfer of innovations -technological as well as its accompanying social inventions �to the people/community.
The project is intended to be a non-profit enterprise later to become a self-liquidating community project. It is a job creating and employment generating venture.

Goals and purposes.The Pandayan Project hopes to achieve the following purposes:

Indicators of project achievement. The achievement of these purposes shall be reflected in terms of:

8. GIS Mapping for Economic Development and Environmental Management for provincial and municipal governments � A project to prepare GIS-based provincial and municipal maps that will be useful for economic development planning, trade and investment planning, and development cooperation among local government units. It is geared towards improving the economic situation in rural communities needing different types of maps, from geographic base maps to the more sophisticated or specialized maps like economic maps, natural resource maps, etc.

Likhaan Educational Programs & Training Courses

» Likhaan Educational Programs & Training Courses

» The full implementation of most of the programs and projects described above depends heavily on your fund support. Your donations would be able to finance these programs, projects and other activities. It is easy to send a donation to Likhaan. Just click Donation.